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un, De statu regularium, in VI (III, 16)] made it an inviolable law for all professed nuns; and the Council of Trent (sess. It was also impossible for them to organize on the lines of the Mendicant Orders, that is to say to have a superior general over several houses and members attached to a province rather than to a monastery.The difficulty was sometimes avoided by having tertiary sisters, bound only by simple vows, and dispensed from the enclosure. Pius V took more radical measures by his constitution "Circa pastoralis", of 25 May, 1566. Monasteries of women were generally situated at a distance from those of men; St. Justinian abolished these double houses in the East, placed an old man to look after the temporal affairs of the convent, and appointed a priest and a deacon who were to perform their duties, but not to hold any other communication with the nuns. They were sometimes admitted among the deaconesses for the baptism of adult women and to exercise the functions which St. When the persecutions of the third century drove many into the desert, the solitary life produced many heroines; and when the monks began to live in monasteries, there were also communities of women. Pachomius (292-346) built a convent in which a number of religious women lived with his sister. The nuns of Egypt and Syria cut their hair, a practice not introduced until later into the West. There were, however, common houses, one wing being set apart for women and the other for men, more frequently adjoining houses for the two sexes.Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Hence in the ninth century the list of women vowed to the service of God included these various classes: virgins, whose solemn consecration was reserved to the bishop, nuns bound by religious profession, deaconesses engaged in the service of the church, and wives or widows of men in Sacred Orders.Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more all for only .99... The nuns sometimes occupied a special house; the enclosure strictly kept in the East, was not considered indispensable in the West.
For nearly three centuries the Holy See refused all approbation to convents bound by simple vows, and Urban VIII by his constitution "Pastoralis" of 31 May, 1631 abolished an English teaching congregation, founded by Mary Ward in 1609, which had simple vows and a superior general. So great were the services rendered by these new communities to the poor, the sick, the young, and even the missions, that the Holy See expressly confirmed several constitutions, but for a long time refused to confirm the congregations themselves, and the formula of commendation or ratification contained this restriction (without approbation of the congregation).The constitution "Conditae" of Leo XIII (8 December, 1900) charges bishops not to permit sisters to open houses as hotels for the entertainment of strangers of both sexes, and to be extremely careful in authorizing congregations which live on alms, or nurse sick persons at their homes, or maintain infirmaries for the reception of inform persons of both sexes, or sick priests.The Holy See, by its Regulations (Normae) of 28 June, 1901, declares that it does not approve of congregations whose object is to render certain services in seminaries or colleges for male pupils, or to teach children or young people of both sexes; and it disapproves their undertaking the direct care of young infants, or lying-in women.The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various religious orders to the practice of a life of perfection, dates from the first ages of the Church, and women may claim with a certain pride that they were the first to embrace the religious state for its own sake, without regard to missionary work and ecclesiastical functions proper to men. Paul speaks of widows, who were called to certain kinds of church work (1 Timothy 5:9), and of virgins (1 Corinthians 7), whom he praises for their continence and their devotion to the things of the Lord. Other monasteries allowed the nuns to go in and out.
The virgins were remarkable for their perfect and perpetual chastity which the Catholic Apologists have extolled as a contrast to pagan corruption (St. In Gaul and Spain the novitiate lasted one year for the cloistered nuns and three years for the others.
Continence and a certain religious profession were required of married women whose husbands were in Sacred Orders, or even received episcopal consecration.